Friday, June 26, 2020

Shinto and Buddhism - Free Essay Example

Introduction Buddhism is an international religion practiced by numerous people, many of which practice pacifism to attaining the ultimate form of Zen, or inner peace, which is met through contemplation, meditation and relaxation exercises. It is almost unilaterally synonymous with the symbol of Buddha. Buddha is the representative and namesake of Buddhism, which is practiced in China, Japan, India and the United States to name a few distinct locations. Shinto on the other hand is native to Japan, and as such almost exclusively practiced in Japan, and whereas Buddhism contains an individual as its namesake, Shinto practitioners hold the belief that nearly every living thing holds a spirit. All told there are well over 800 different spirits in Japan according to Shintoists. Based upon the description above, we will now delve into the differences between Shinto and Buddhist temples, and how worship is carried out in each of them. One fact that may interest you is that most weddings are carried out in Shinto tradition, while most funerals are conducted via Buddhist tradition. There are similarities and differences in both practices, but the two theories maintain a fundamental difference which we will describe in the paragraphs following. The question is not so much why but how in this discussion. Shinto Shrines People visit Shinto shrines to pay respect to spirits known as Kami, which each respective town or village has a local one, an d is the primary purpose for a shrine, or to pray for good fortune. Over the years numerous elements of Buddhism and Shinto have melded together, but there are several characteristics that make a Shinto shrine unique, to name a few, they are; Torii-the gate of the shrine, which are often red or orange in color, Komainu-a pair of dogs or lions at the gate of a shrine except in the case of Inari shrines they are foxes rather than dogs, Purification trough-used to clean the hands and mouth prior to entering the main worship hall, Ema-booths where people may leave prayers in the hopes that the gods may answer them, Omikuji-are slips of paper with daikyi (good luck), or daikichi (misfortune) visitors take one in the hopes that good luck may be attained or that misfortune may be averted. Along with the features of shrines, there are also numerous types of shrines ranging from Imperial-state sponsored shrines, Inari-recognizable by foxes at the gate and dedicated to kami of rice, Hachiman, -dedicated to the kami of war, Sengen-dedicated to Princess Konohana sakuya, the deity of Mount Fuji, and Tenijin-popular among students preparing for entrance exams. Shrines are referred to as such, but they are temples just like the Buddhist version. People visit them on holidays and special occasions rather than on days of the week. Each shrine may contain several sub-shrines and may take up as much area as several thousand acres. In Shinto, there is a large emphasis on purity and cleanliness. Part of the process here is that is impossible to attain harmony if we are fettered by the outside influence of the world. There is a large focus on cleaning of the hands, mouth and body. This is accomplished ritualistically via bathing, hand washing and standing under waterfalls. Ritual is one of the largest parts to Shinto, and no better example exists than the cleanliness portion. Buddhist Temples As previously mentioned, Shrines are temples, but the two are quite different despite the similar name. Buddhism is the older religion, and has a higher occurrence of structures. The basic structure of a Buddhist temple originated in India, they come in a few basic shapes, which include; Stupa-the original dome or bell-like structure that was meant to contain ashes and relics and constructed out of mud bricks. They eventually became more elaborate with depictions of the life of prince Siddhartha on the outside, Pagoda-developing in China, as the stupa grew taller and narrower, they are eight sided structures, (after the eightfold path of enlightenment), containing an odd number of stories-between three and thirteen. In Japan, small stone pagodas exist in cemeteries and are five stories representing the cycles of life and the void, Monastery-, Theravidin shrine, sparse flat structures that is primarily used for meditation, may be adorned with a Buddha- and Thai Temple-are small struct ures that appear in nearly every town. Worship Although native to Japan, Shinto shrines are on the decline in Japan, with only about 80,000 remaining. This is roughly equivalent to the number of convenience stores in Japan. This is due in part to the merging of Temples and Shrines in the latter part of the 19th century. Since Buddhism became more popular for worship, there has been a decline in Shinto practioners. Shinto at its core is a commune with nature and a search for inner tranquility. There is not an established regimen such as a scripture, as it more of an intuition than a anything. Buddhism brought with it a sort of iconography that may be easier to grasp especially in the modern age where seemingly everyone is glued to a personal electronic device nearly 24/7. It is not to say that Buddhism is bad, simply that it incorporates slightly different procedures than does Shinto. (Tamashige, 2013). Much like Shinto and its end-goal of attaining harmony the basic tenets of Buddhism teach about simplicity. Through simplicity th e way may be found through the basic tenets of the religion which are: 1) Sila Composed of two principles-the value of equality, and the golden rule and is found in other major religions. 2) Samadhi equates to mindfulness, concentration and focus. 3) Prajna-Wisdom and enlightenment. Practice of these basic tenets will lead to the four basic truths of Buddhism, which I will describe incredibly simplistically 1) Dukkha-suffering exists. 2) Samudaya-The desire for material thig s is the cause for suffering. 3) Nirodha-Thee end to suffering comes when the mind ceases to desire. This is sometimes also known as Nirvana 4) Magga-In order to end suffering you must follow the eightfold path. Conclusion Although the two religions co-exist for the most part with each other, upon further examination the two schools of thought are relatively different. Despite this fact, it is still important in the history of Japan that each idea is maintained as it important within American culture to maintain the different practices of Christianity. Fundamentally it is a question of perspective, and if we all begin to look at everything the same, we may all eventually lose some of the qualities of innovativeness and adaptability that make humans unique in the world. If you look at the tenets of both Shinto and Buddhism, especially in the times we live in it may become plain that much of the struggles we face are self-inflicted, and we must all appear to be quite loathsome and masochistic in our ways. Why else would we choose to maintain so many possessions, and create so much waste? Surely, we must desire to suffer. Bibliography Kleiner, Fred. (2009). Gardners Art Through the Ages Backpack Edition (w/Bk C F). Cengage. What is the difference between Buddhism and Shintoism? (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://travelience.com/faq2/what-is-the-difference-between-the-buddhism-and-the-shintoism/ Shinto Shrines. (1996-2017). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2059.html Tamashige, S. (2013, May 16). Seeing where Shinto and Buddhism cross. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2013/05/16/arts/seeing-where-shinto-and-buddhism-cross/#.Wgpjb7aZPzU Buddhist Temples and Shrines. (n.d.). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.waupun.k12.wi.us/Policy/other/dickhut/religions/59%20Buddhist%20Temples.htm

Sunday, May 24, 2020

News On Foreign News And Its Impact On Society s View On...

Thinking of a question related to news was difficult because I am a journalism major and news is a hot topic within my major. â€Å"News† is a very broad statement and can mean many different things. It also brings all kinds of questions to mind. Originally I went with a broad question that later turned into a very specific topic making the research much easier. My first question was, â€Å"How does news based in the United States effect societies views on other countries? How does foreign news affect their societies’ view on the United States?† By trying to find simple research on this through the MU Library, I was quick to find that in order to write a successful research paper it is vital to have a more specific question to get the answers you want. I was not finding specific research that included specific information on foreign news and its societal affects. After some struggles, one article popped out to me about news on foreign countries and their economy so I decided to look at how the positive and negative news written about a foreign country later effects that economy. My question then became, â€Å"How does an article written in a specific country affect the economy of a foreign nation?† For example, if a news program based in the United States were to write an article about China, how would that article truly affect the economy of China. It has been seen that news can change the perspective of the way people see the world and all that goes on among the economic leaders. ByShow MoreRelatedWhat Caused The Rise Of Protesters Throughout The 1960s? Essay1448 Words   |  6 PagesThe 1960s in the United States of America was an era of protests. Americans from the 1960s era experienced social changes that caused Americans to revolt of the Establishment of the 1950s. Racial discrimination, gender equality, and poverty are certain specific of the problems that Americans sought the need to identify of what caused the rise of protesters throughout the 1960s. The youth generation from the era â€Å"baby boomers† were the causes for the determination for the 1960s. The parents of theRead MoreThe Historical Birth Of The Concept Of Foreign Policy In1527 Words   |  7 Pagesconcept of Foreign Policy in the United States has had a very interesting start. During today s policymaking it may seem like we have our hand and every cookie jar. However, this was not how our nation initially started out. President Washington argued the great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is to have them as little political connection as possible (New Framework for Foreign Affairs, 2013) It would seem that the founders did not feel the need to have extensive foreign policiesRead MoreU.s. Relations Between The United States And Cuba843 Words   |  4 Pages In the recent months, the media has been in a frenzy with the topic of the new emerging relations evolving between the United States and Cuba. This new development, following merely years after Raul Castro was succeeded by his brother Fidel, prompted an inquiry. Why new relations now? Has there been a significant current event to prompt the end to a 50 year embargo? Is Cuba becoming more liberal? Or is the United States merely become more sensible? In essence, we are aiming to unearth the underlyingRead MoreThe 70s Are Not Totally Happy `` Days1667 Words   |  7 PagesRepublicanism. This strategy restrained Democrats from expanding the New Deal while stopping conservative Republicans from reversing popular programs such as Social Security. Correspondibly, no major reform actions emerged from a decade many would describe as politically dead. 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A rebuilding Europe was hungry for AmericanRead MoreThe Immigration Policy Institute ( Mpi )1361 Words   |  6 Pageslong term or even for a short period as a foreign worker, and to experience a different culture in another country.  Immigration is a crucial issue that the United States had faced for years because it brings impact to the country’s economy, population, workforce and many more.  The nation that Immigrants should be legal is a fasacinating one, and one that I believe in. â€Å"Per as the Migration Policy Institute(MPI), the number of immigrants in the United States has been increasing since the year 1970 toRead MoreSecession Of The Texas Economy966 Words   |  4 PagesIn today’s society with so many disagreements between the state and federal government going on the thought crosses some Texans minds about secession. The movement, headed by the Texas Nationalist Movement and the Tea Party, is seeki ng to remove the state from the union and institute Texas as a new country. Many questions arise over the topic of secession covering topics such as economy, currency, population, and if Texas would be helped or hurt by leaving the United States federal government behindRead MoreThe Official Definition Of Illegal Is â€Å"Contrary To Or Forbidden1517 Words   |  7 Pagespermanently in a foreign country†. Therefore Illegal Immigrants are foreigners who enter another country, the United States of America, without a Visa. They cross the border by avoiding inspection and overstay the allotted period of time allowed as a visitor, tourist, or businessperson. There are 12 million illegal immigrants in America today. How is the possible if it is illegal? And more importantly, why are they allowed to stay if they went against federal law? The United States claims to have safeRead MoreDomestic and Foreign Policies Essay993 Words   |  4 PagesDomestic and Foreign Policies Throughout our history, many policies have been made to deal with domestic or foreign issues or conflicts. One example of domestic policies were the reforms FDR created called the New Deal. An example of a foreign policy was that of containment used after WW2. In the 1930s our country and many others around the world went through a financial depression. The Depression was mostly attributed to the stock market crash in 1929. PresidentRead MoreRealism Is The Most Convincing Paradigm For International Relations? Essay1579 Words   |  7 PagesINTERNATIONAL RELATIONS? Realism has dominated international relations theory since emerging in the 1930’s. The era of state conflict lasting from the 1930’s to the end of the cold war in 1947, proved the perfect hostile environment to fit the largely pessimistic view of world politics. While many aspects of realism are still alive in International Relations today; including the dominant presence of states, intrinsic of war and the decentralised government. However, realism only reaches so far in explainingRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Latin American Immigration on America1553 Words   |  7 Pages Immigration is the process of entry of individuals into a new country (23). Throughout past centuries, immigration has been a means of discovery and exploration of new lands. In today’s culture, immigration to the United States is an avenue for individuals who wish to start new lives and take advantage of the capitalistic, entrepreneurial system. People from many countries hav e migrated into the United States. Most recently, the migrants have come from Central and South American countries

Monday, May 18, 2020

Ann Hopkins Essay - 1665 Words

Legal Analysis Model The relevant facts nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;According to the case, Ann Hopkins had worked successfully for Price Waterhouse since 1978 and was â€Å"nominated for partnership at Price Waterhouse in 1982.† (p. 1) Out of 88 candidates she was the only woman. In the admissions process, forms were sent out to all Price Waterhouse partners of whom there were 662. These partners then submitted their comments about the candidates. . Only â€Å"thirty-two partners, all male, responded about Hopkins.† (p. 5) The forms were then tabulated to achieve a statistical rating in order to determine if the candidate should be admitted to the partnership. Of the 88 candidates â€Å"Price Waterhouse offered partnerships to 47 of them, rejected†¦show more content†¦The following section of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 as seen on the website â€Å"usinfo.state.gov† is relevant to this case: â€Å"SEC. 5. CLARIFYING PROHIBITION AGAINST IMPERMISSIBLE CONSIDERATION OF RECE, COLOR, RELIGION, SEX OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN EMPLOYMNET PRACTICES. (a) IN GENERAL.—Section 703 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 Ugt;Sgt;Cgt; 2000e-2) (as amended by section 4) is further amended by adding at the end thereof the following new subsection: â€Å"quot;(1) DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE NEED NOT BE SOLE CONTRIBUTING FACTOR.— Except as otherwise provided in this title, an unlawful employment practice is established when the complaining party demonstrates that race, color, religion, sex, or national origin was a contributing factor for any employment practice, even though other factors also contributed to such practice. quot;. (b) ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS.--Section 706(g) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(g)) is amended by inserting before the period in the last sentence the following: quot;or, in a case where a violation is established under section 703(1), if the respondent establishes that it would have taken the same action in the absence of any discrimination. InShow MoreRelatedThe Case Of Ann Hopkins1719 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The case of Ann Hopkins consists of evidence both for and against the claim made by Hopkins that she was treated with discrimination. The argument that Hopkins was subject to discrimination is based upon the evidence that the criticisms that led to Hopkins’ partnership denial were made on weak grounds, and that Hopkins was held to higher standards than the male candidates. Opposingly, the argument that Hopkins wasn’t subject to discrimination consists of two pillars: that Hopkins was not, on herRead MoreAnn Hopkins Case Study1609 Words   |  7 PagesAnn Hopkins: Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Ann Hopkins: Harvard Business Case Analysis #1 Why was Ann Hopkins passed over for a partnership? Give examples of events that contributed to her being passed over. The Supreme Court ruled Ann Hopkins was passed over for Price Waterhouse partnership because she was not a feminine woman (Selman and de Llose, 1990) calling it sexual discrimination. The partners claimed she needed help with personal and leadership qualities required ofRead MoreCase Analysis : Ann Hopkins Essay1801 Words   |  8 PagesIn 1982, Ann Hopkins was a senior manager at Price Waterhouse, who was nominated for a partnership position in the firm. Based on partner wide voting, it was decided that Ann’s election to partner should be put on hold and eventually, she was told that she would likely never be promoted. (Badaracco,1) With the belief that she had no other options, Ann decided to sue Price Waterhouse. Hopkins believed that she wasn’t promoted because of gender discrimination and argued that the criticism about herRead MoreEssay o n Ann Hopkins Case Analysis637 Words   |  3 PagesAnn Hopkins Case Analysis 1. What ethical problems do you see with the Price Waterhouse partnership evaluation system? The Price Waterhouse partnership evaluation system has the ethical problems that the sex discrimination. The Price Waterhouse most concerned about the interpersonal skill, therefore, Hopkins had been given advices to change her direct style and personal appearance. For example, before Hipkins started working at Price Waterhouse, one partner told her that the firm prohibitedRead MoreAnn Hopkins/Price Waterhouse Sex Discrimation Case Analysis Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesFacts: In 1978, Ann Hopkins began working for Price Waterhouse. Price Waterhouse policy prohibited hiring anyone who was married to a partner or had a close relationship with a partner in a national accounting firm. Hopkins husband was a partner at Touche Ross. Nevertheless, Price Waterhouse honored their offer and hired Hopkins anyway. Ann Hopkins was a senior manager at Price Waterhouse in the firms Office of Government Services (OGS) in 1982 when she was nominated for partnership. OGSRead MoreEdmund Booth: Deaf Pioneer Essay1064 Words   |  5 Pagesthere, he had a meeting which changed his life. Flavel Goldthwaite, a neighbor, came for a visit and told Booth about the Hartford Asylum for deaf students. Booth was admitted the following year and studied under Laurent Clerc, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, and Lewis Weld. He was at the school for 11 years, becoming a teacher after completing his course of study. At one point (1834) Booth and two other teachers went to South Carolina and Georgia. At each place, they gave exhibitionsRead MoreEthics and Discrimination1119 Words   |  5 Pagescorporate world. Ann Hopkins had been with Price Waterhouse s Office of Government Services in Washington, D.C., for five years when the partners in her office proposed her as a candidate for partnership in 1982. Of the 662 partners at the firm during that time, only 7 were women. Of the 88 people proposed for partnership that year, only 1 -- Hopkins -- was a woman. Forty-seven candidates were offered partnership, 21 rejected, and 20 -- including Hopkins -- were held for reconsiderationRead MoreAgency Rules For Lgbt Workplace Discrimination Essay1490 Words   |  6 Pages(2015). U.S. Agency Rules for Gays in Workplace Discrimination. The New York Times. Ann Hopkins, a senior manager in the Office of Government Services, was nominated to be a partner in the accounting firm, Price Waterhouse. Her job performance was evaluated through a booklet that consisted of a headshot, peers’ performance evaluations, counseling session reports, statistical analyses and more. Several of Hopkins’ assessments agreed on her competency, hard-working attitude, and outstanding performance;Read MoreHopkins V. Price Waterhouse929 Words   |  4 PagesHopkins v. Price-Waterhouse is a very detailed case, that features many aspects of the patriarchy, and lingering ways of thinking about gender that are hopefully being phased out of modern society. The Supreme Court chose not to make a ruling, which was the right decision in a legal sense, though there was more proof that Hopkins was discriminated against. Ann Hopkins was such a success in Price-Waterhouse; she was hired specifically by the United States State Department to handle a massive contractRead Morecrucible bickering diagram786 Words   |  4 Pagesagainst Abigail until Abigail charges her with witchery. She is a pliable girl whose actions are easily determined by others. Tituba Parris slave from Barbados, Tituba was with the girls when they danced and attempted to conjure the spirits of Ann Putnam s dead children. She is the first person accused of witchcraft and likewise the first person to accuse others of witchery - particularly when she discovers that the easiest way to spare herself is to admit to the charges no matter their truth

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Rules of English Definitions and Examples

In linguistics, the rules of English are the principles that govern syntax, word formation, pronunciation, and other features of the English language.In prescriptive grammar, the rules of English are statements regarding correct or conventional forms of words and sentences in English. Examples and Observations The grammatical rules of English language are determined by the nature of the language itself but the rules of use and the appropriateness of the use are determined by the speech community.  (Joseph C. Mukalel, Approaches To English Language Teaching. Discovery Publishing House, 1998)A moments reflection will reveal that if languages were not highly systematic and ruled, we could never learn them and use them. Speakers learn the rules of their language(s) as children and then apply them automatically for the rest of their lives. No native speaker of English, for example, has to stop in the middle of a sentence and think about how to pronounce the plurals of rate, race, or raid. Even though the plurals of all three of these words are pronounced differently, we learned at a very young age that the different forms are predictable and how to predict them. Mistakes in usage occur in areas of language that lack systems or are exceptions to the rules. Children who say My foots are dirty a re demonstrating not that they do not know the rules of English, but rather that they know the rules well; they just have not mastered the exceptions.  (C. M. Millward and Mary Hayes, A Biography of the English Language, 3rd ed. Wadsworth, 2011) Constitutive Rules and Regulatory Rules The difference between descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar is comparable to the difference between constitutive rules, which determine how something works (such as the rules for the game of chess), and regulatory rules, which control behavior (such as the rules of etiquette). If the former are violated, the thing cannot work, but if the latter are violated, the things work, but crudely, awkwardly, or rudely. . . .If you say, for example, Cat the dog chased you are not speaking English; the sentence violates the constitutive rules of the language and is thus considered ungrammatical. Hearers might well have trouble understanding you (Is the dog chasing the cat or the cat chasing the dog?). However, if you say He did good on the exam, your sentence is grammatical and would be understood by all, but many people would find your sentence unacceptable; they would consider it bad, nonstandard, or incorrect English. This sentence violates the regulatory rules of English but not its constitutive rules.  (Laurel J. Brinton and Donna M. Brinton, The Linguistic Structure of Modern English. John Benjamins, 2010) The Influence of Latin on the Rules of English Grammar [T]he endless versatility of English is what makes our rules of grammar so perplexing. Few English-speaking natives, however well educated, can confidently elucidate the difference between, say, a complement and a predicate or distinguish a full infinitive from a bare one. The reason for this is that the rules of English grammar were originally modeled on those of Latin, which in the seventeenth century was considered the purest and most admirable of tongues. That it may be. But it is also quite clearly another language altogether. Imposing Latin rules on English structure is a little like trying to play baseball on ice skates. The two simply dont match. In the sentence I am swimming, swimming is a present participle. But in the sentence Swimming is good for you, it is a gerund--even though it means exactly the same thing.  (Bill Bryson, The Mother Tongue. William Morrow, 1990) Syntactic Rules Syntax is the set of rules for combining words into sentences. For example, the rules of English syntax tell us that, because nouns generally precede verbs in basic English sentences, dogs and barked may be combined as Dogs barked but not *Barked dogs (the asterisk being used by linguists to mark constructions that violate the rules of the language). Similarly, Dogs bark is permissible, but Bark dogs is permissible only if the subject is understood--in which case the sentence would be punctuated Bark, dogs! to indicate the normal pronunciation. Still, other syntactic rules require the presence of an additional word if dog is singular: one can say A dog barks or The dog barks but not *Dog bark(s). Moreover, the rules of standard English syntax tell us that -ing must be attached to bark if some form of be precedes bark: Dogs are barking or The/A dog is barking, but not *Dogs barking.  (Ronald R. Butters, Grammatical Structures. The Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume 6, ed. by John Algeo. Cambridge University Press, 2001) The Lighter Side of the RulesHenry Spencer: You know, a club needs regulations, bylaws. You guys got any rules?Young Gus: Yes. No girls!Young Shawn: And everybody has to be under twelve. No old guys.Young Gus: And they have to have a love of correct grammar.Young Shawn: Thats not a rule!Young Gus: You said we could have one special rule. Thats mine.Young Shawn: And thats the best rule you could think of?Young Gus: I think you mean, thats the best rule of which you could think.Young Shawn: Im not being in a club with this!(Dis-Lodged. Psych, February 1, 2008)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Science And War Science Or War Essay - 2162 Words

Science and war Science and war are two different terms but they are found to have been deeply related. The existence of war initiated before the invention of scientific discoveries which are nowadays used as the means of war. The mode of war has been made destructive due to the misuse of scientific discoveries. It is said that modern scientific discoveries have made everything more comfortable. Nowadays we can travel around the world in twenty-four hours. We can enjoy everything sitting at our homes. Due to the invention of scientific discoveries, our home has been made as the whole world. On the other hand, the means of scientific discoveries of scientific discoveries are willingly misused for the destruction of human civilization; no doubt, it’s the worst aspect of science and technology. The discoveries of science and technology cannot be said to be responsible for making the mode of war more destructive because of no scientific discoveries and destructive themselves if we use them proper ly. I choose this point on the grounds that being a man of an inquisitive type, I watch numerous documentaries to extinguish my thirst of voracious interest, either that be space, the theory of relativity or war. When I watched series Dark matters- twisted but true† where there are numerous documentaries of logical research and trial, and which gives a considerable measure of data and learning about the analysis and its history. In that series, I saw an episode of Agent orange, inShow MoreRelatedThe Science behind War1970 Words   |  8 PagesThe science behind War As we all know war has been amongst us since time ever began. It has been around when the first creatures were developed and learned how to survive. And as humans evolved over the centuries, we came to realize this theory we call â€Å"war† is actually a natural thing. And we then classified it as violence or as the survival of the fittest. And now in modern thinking and technology, we are now able to find how the human mind came up with an idea such as violence. How humans firstRead MoreScience Of The War On The World War II Essay2201 Words   |  9 Pages15, 2016 Science In Between the War From the sponsorship given the Casa de Contratacià ³n by Queen Isabella to the government funding of many ongoing scientific experiments, science has always been heavily linked with politics. Political power often collaborates with technological development in such a manner that societal ideals reflected in the political regime correlates with the objectives behind scientific development. As a result, conflict of political powers as manifested in war leads to anRead MoreScience Fiction, And, Star Wars And The Time Machine1487 Words   |  6 PagesScience fiction, a genre which has elapsed over decades in the industry, has gained many followers in its several forms of media. Science fiction, in the same sense, has also been analyzed for its value and has received many â€Å"Authorities† in the sense that these individuals allow for a more comprehensive look at this type of genre. Different types of subgenres have emerged due to the enhancement of â€Å"New Trains of Thought † produced by these â€Å"Authorities† and have taken this genre into a new perspectiveRead MoreStar Wars : A Science Fiction Genre Trilogy2692 Words   |  11 PagesResearch Savon Benally Star Wars Star Wars is a Science Fiction genre trilogy. The stories and ideas of the trilogy were all written by George Lucas. Star Wars was originally a three movie saga. 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Other technological advancementsRead MoreMen in Black and Star Wars the Phantom Menace as Science Fiction923 Words   |  4 PagesMen in Black and Star Wars the Phantom Menace as Science Fiction Both of these films contain ideas of war and peace, whether it is the threat of invasion or the protection of land and values; also there is an element of power that is exerted between two sides disrupting the peace and the balance of the universe. Secrecy is added to indicate that not everything should be available for all to see. Conformity is a key themeRead MoreEssay on Science Versus Religion in H.G. Wells War of the Worlds1813 Words   |  8 Pagesare Industrialization, Imperialism and science vs. Religion. Industrialization means using off weapons or machines. This is shown in the Novel by H.G. Wells that the Martians are killing the human race by using off their machines and weapons. Imperialism means that creating an empire like United Kingdom just is. This is shown in the Novel by H.G. Wells that the Martians are trying to create their own empire by starting off with the great city London. Science vs. Religion had a really argument againstRead MoreThe science of Star Wars is book written by Jeanne Cavelos, it tries to link the content of the1000 Words   |  4 PagesThe science of Star Wars is book written by Jeanne Cavelos, it tries to link the content of the Star Wars trilogies with modern science. It offers the readers the plausibility of the phenomena that occurs in the world of Star Wars. The book is divi ded into five chapters excluding the introduction. She proceeds from environments to aliens and androids to spaceships and weapons to end with a chapter on â€Å"The Force†. The first Chapter is called Planetary Environments. 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The ever-evolving image of science and technology in the United States is usually due to how the mo st recent developments in science and technology contribute, whether in a perceived positive of negative light. In times such as war, where technology essentially determines the outcome, the public’s perception of technology becomes essential, as well as the implementation of said technology. Many

Kant’s Categorical Imperative Free Essays

Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher during the Age of Enlightenment in Europe in the mid to late 18th century.   Immanuel Kant advanced the deontological theory with his theory: the categorical imperative.   Deontology is the theory of duty or moral obligation. We will write a custom essay sample on Kant’s Categorical Imperative or any similar topic only for you Order Now    Performing that duty is the righteous act in itself, not the act leading to an expected or attempted end.  Ã‚   In other words, the end does not justify the means, but the means is an end unto itself. â€Å"In his theory, Kant claimed that various actions are morally wrong if they are inconsistent with the status of a person as a free and rational being, and that, conversely, acts that further the status of people as free and rational beings are morally right.† (Categorical)   Kant believed that to carry out morally right actions was an absolute duty.   He believed there were two types of duty: contingent duties which needed to be carried out only under certain circumstances, and categorical duties which always needed to be carried out because they were based on the general nature of things. (Categorical)   From these categorical duties, Kant created the categorical imperative. The categorical imperative is comprised of five formulations. The first three were the most famous: â€Å"Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.† â€Å"Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means† â€Å"Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends.† (Kant )  The first two formulations will be discussed in this paper.   The third formulation seems to merely combine the commands of the first two formulations. In order to understand the categorical imperative theory, the definition of a maxim must be understood.   A maxim, according to Kant, is a principle or rule that an individual uses when making a decision to act. (Categorical)   Morality and rational demands apply to the maxims that motivate actions. (Categorical) The first formulation is the Formula of Universal Law.   It holds that one should only act on a maxim that the agent is willing to hold as a universal law.   Also, the law â€Å"must not come into conflict with itself.† (Categorical)   In other words, if the rule or maxim cannot or should not apply to everyone or if it contradicts itself in any situation, then it should not be acted upon.   If the maxim is rational and not contradictory to itself, then the action should and, in some cases, must be taken. (Categorical)   Kant divided this reference to the duty to act on maxims into perfect duty and imperfect duty.   The perfect duty is to act only on maxims that do not result in logical contradictions when they are universalized.   The imperfect duty is to act only on those maxims that the agent is willing to universalize.   One cannot create a maxim for oneself that he or she will not apply to someone else. The second formulation is the Formula of the End in Itself.   This formulation holds that one should consider other humans or â€Å"rational beings† as well as one’s self as an end, never as a means. (Categorical)   This is the opposite of the ends justifies the means theory.   In this formulation, the means are considered an end.   Therefore, the means cannot justify the ends.   If it is wrong to lie, then it is wrong to lie whether the outcome from the lie is good or bad because the lie was the end in itself: the morally wrong action that was taken. This means that a person must apply all maxims to others as he applies them to himself or else the maxims would be contradictory. There is a strong point made with both formulations, as well as a weakness.   The strongest point in the first formulation is universality.   It makes sense that one should wish to apply all rules and laws to others as they are applied to one’s self.   For example, if I were expected by a local law to keep my dog on a leash, I would expect my neighbors to abide by that law also.   Similarly, if I was allowed the freedom to have as many children as I wish, then I should not try to take that freedom from others.   This applies to the second formulation also.   If other rational beings are to be treated as rational beings and not a means to my outcomes, then these rational beings should all hold these same freedoms that I do. In contrast, both formulations have a weakness.   It is difficult to always judge actions, as they stand alone.   It is wrong to murder.   However, in self-defense, it may be necessary.   If we view a self-defensive murder according to the categorical formulation, it is wrong to murder no matter the outcome, good or bad.   But what if killing an attacker was the only method of saving one’s own life and perhaps, depending on the scenario, the lives of others?   Then was it morally wrong to murder?   Would the obligation to save others overrule the principle that murder is wrong?   What is the maxim to act on in this case?   Too many contradictions and shaky situations can arise to dispute the formulation. The second formulation is easier to practice than the first.   It is sensible to apply the same rules to one’s self as to other human beings.   However, because the first formulation requires that particular conditions not apply, it is more difficult to practice the first formulation.  Nevertheless, the second formulation supports the first.   If a maxim is contradictory, then it should not be used to make decisions.   Also, as in the second formulation, if a person or action was used as a means and not an end, then it could not be rational or universal which would render it contradictory.   So, one would be morally bound not to use such a maxim to make decisions by perfect and imperfect duty. In order for the second formulation to be true, the first formulation must exist.   In the first formulation, it is explained that the maxim cannot be contradictory to itself and it must be willingly used universally.   In the second formulation, if a person demands an end for himself, he must demand the same end for everyone else.   Everyone has a moral obligation to seek the same ends for all mankind that he seeks for himself.   For example, if a man seeks the freedom to marry whom he pleases, then he must seek that right for every other man out there, too.   It would be morally wrong for him to choose another man’s wife or a woman’s husband. Thus, if the first formulation which specifies universality and uniformity were not true, then the second formulation which expounds universality between human beings would not be true.   Also, if the universality between rational beings was not true, then it would be contradictory to the first formulation which would then contradict itself and then neither would be true.   So, it is conclusive that these formulations must work together to create the standard for moral duty. All in all, Kant was trying to theorize that actions were not bound morally by consequences or outcome.   He was explaining that actions in themselves were good or bad no matter the outcome because people chose their actions by their sense of moral duty, not by the consequences of their actions. References Categorical Imperative Formulations. Wikipedia. [Online] Available at:                   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categorical_imperative#The_second_formulation      Accessed: 5 /12/2007. 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Adam Smith free essay sample

Adam Smith is undoubtedly one of the most celebrated scholars of all time since his revolutionary theories on trade changed the way people engaged in commerce and ultimately the role of government in regulating trade within and without. Adam Smith was infuriated by the mercantile policies that sought to promote the accumulation of gold and silver and which emphasized strict government control on trade and the flow of resources and labor. In addition he did not view agriculture as the only means for society to satisfy its means and in his view such singular thoughts limited growth of all sectors. Smith believed in a system of natural liberty whose end he believed would be effective trade and significant expansion of trade through growth of sectors. He believed that human beings should be allowed to pursue their individual interest since in his own opinion this personal interest always ends up benefiting the whole of society. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This system also has the capacity to correct imbalances that might result out of free trade. This is because a reduction in the supply of a commodity would result into increased demand for that commodity resulting into an increased cost of the commodity leading to increased production of the same in order to reap the increased profit. This would in turn lead to an increase in competition among the suppliers lowering the price of the commodity. This competition among traders prevents monopolistic behavior that would lead to exploitation of consumers. Smith explained that for great productivity to be achieved, self interest would lead to division of labor giving rise to specialization to particular tasks. This in turn leads to great skill in the specialized tasks, saving of important time and much needed innovations. Smith felt that wealth of nations was influenced by the amount of trade that existed between the inhabitants of towns and those in farms. He saw it as being vital for such trade to exist to provide market for both their commodities. On those who felt that lack of government interference might lead some to other countries where labor is cheaper, he felt that they would be stopped from doing so due to their nationalistic feelings and this will be ultimately for the good of the countries. Work Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, vol. 39. Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 195 Adam Smith free essay sample Adams Smith was a famous professor of moral psychology who set out simple principles designed the free the self-interest of the average working man. Adam Smith is famous for his â€Å"The Wealth of Nations†, because it is one of the contemporary economic thoughts.   Adam Smith was born in a small village situated in Scotland. He was raised by a widowed mother until entering the University of Glasgow. He started studying at the University at the age of fourteen and such practice was usual in those times. Ten he attended Balliol College at Oxford. Smith graduated with proper knowledge in European literature and returned home. After delivering lectures, he became a chair of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow[1].In 1764 Adam Smith decided to leave academia and to each young duke of Buccleuch. Together they had been traveling for two years throughout Switzerland and France. It was an experience that â€Å"brought Smith into contact with contemporaries Voltaire, Francois Quesnay, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Jacques Turgot†[2]. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Serving duke, Smith earned life pension and after retiring he wrote â€Å"The Wealth of Nation† being published firstly in 177. American Declaration of Independence was also signed this year. Later smith was appointed commissioner of customs, though that position was uncomfortable for him. It is known that Adam Smith had never been married. He died in 1790, July 19.Smith’s writings and ideas are likely to be the guidelines of bedrock of the American economic success. Smith provided information how to survive in capitalist country and to remain humane[3]. His ideas on economy and well-being are important for understanding the growing discomfort being experienced by American society.   Smith’s ideas were integral to the vision of the Founding Fathers. Therefore, his ideas found practical application in American nation. American dream nowadays is significantly magnified by globalization processes, technology developments, though social good is paid less attention[4].Actually, Adam Smith is respected for his attempts to explain the rational self-interest in terms of free-market economy ad how self-interest leads to economic development and well-being. Therefore, Smith ideas may seem as ruthless individualism concentrated on ethics and charity. It is admitted that Smith’s theory is based mostly on biology of human behavior. Factually, Adam Smith was the first to rationalize the human instincts and desires within the economic framework. Whybrow cites Smith arguing that contemporary society is driven by self-love and self-interest to achieve the desired outcomes. Most humans are hard-working and ingenious willing to achieve great social benefits. Smith asserts that it is the instinct of self-preservation. The essential complement is the instinctual curiosity meaning the desire to explore new places. Success of market society depends on individuals’ democracies and liberties as well as the freedom of expression. Adams summarized the keys to social improvements suggesting they were curiosity, self-interest, self-preservation, material gains and expressed ambitions.Adam Smith wrote: â€Å"How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature which interest him in the fortune of others and render their happiness necessary to him though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it†[5]. As it is mentioned above, Smith was rather interested in explanation of self-interest. Therefore, he strongly objected to idea that self-interest or self-love was â€Å"was a principle which could never be virtuous in any degree†[6].Smith though that life of humans would be tough and difficult if humans’ â€Å"affections, which, by the very nature of our being, ought frequently to influence our conduct, could upon no occasion appear virtuous, or deserve esteem and commendation from anybody†[7]. He considered the notions of sympathy and self-interest ethical and stated they complemented each other. He explained that â€Å"man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only[8]†. Therefore, charity alone was unable to improve the quality of living. Further, self-interest could remedy and essentially improve living: â€Å"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we can expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest †[9].Smith argued that a person earning money would benefit not only himself, but also benefit society as earning income in competitive market suggested that he produced something valuable for to others. Smith claimed that it was necessary to direct industry in such a way that it would produce the greatest values to be able to promote economic well-being. â€Å"The Wealth of the Nations: reveals the ideas of causes and consequences of American prosperity. According to Smith, the main reason of prosperity is globalization and division of labor. Smith’s famous example of prosperity is based on pins.The central idea of Smith was to find out how labor and other resources should be applied the best to give individual am opportunity to benefit. Smith argued that individual would invest any resource such as land or labor in order to receive the highest return on it. Therefore, usage of resources should yield an equal rate of return. Otherwise, re-allocation should take place. This idea is central proposition to economic development. Using equality of returns, Smith tried to explain the difference in wage rates. Smith claimed that wage rates would be higher for traders, because they had to learn much and they wouldn’t be motivated in getting that job if they weren’t compensated by high wages. Actually, human capital is based on this concept.Also wage rates should be higher for people whose jobs are associated with dirtiness and danger – butchering, coal mining, hangman, etc. they perform odious job and, thus, should be compensated higher.    Briefly speaking, differences in wages rates should be based on differences in work peculiarities. Smith’s theory , for example, in Smith’s fourth book of â€Å"The Wealth of Nations† he â€Å"tells Great Britain that her American colonies are not worth the cost of keeping†. He explained that British imperialism suggested excessively high costs[10].It is known that Adam Smith was against mercantilism stating that the practice of artificial maintenance of trade surplus wouldn’t improve nations’ well-being and would erroneous effort. Smith assumed that the main advantage of trade was that it provided new markets for surplus of goods and services at less cost from abroad. In such a way he launched succession of free trade economists who worked out the concept of comparative advantage (David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill). Adam Smith also realized the role of government in economic performance of the country. He claimed that the government had to enforce grant patents and contracts in order to stimulate emergence of new ides and inventions. Smith also admitted that government should pay attention to public roads and bridges, because it wouldn’t be worthwhile for individuals to provide[11].It is interesting to note that Smith in contrast to other believers, Smith promoted the idea of retaliatory tariffs. He thought it would ensure certain benefits for the country: â€Å"The recovery of a great foreign market will generally more than compensate the transitory inconvenience of paying dearer during a short time for some sorts of goods†[12]. Due to the fact that his economic ideas lasted longer than that of other economists’, Smith is considered alpha and omega of economic and political science. His study was one of the most systematic and comprehensive and his economic ideas are the basis of classical economic theory.BibliographyHenderson, David. (2002). Biography of Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/bios/Smith.htmlLandry, Peter. (1997). Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Smith.htmMuller, Jerry. (1995). Adam Smith in his Time and Ours: Designing the Descent Society. USA: Princeton University Press.Muller, Jerry. (2002). The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought. USA: Anchor Books.Teichgraeber, Richard. (1986).   Free Trade and Moral Philosophy: Rethinking the Sources of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations. USA: Anchor Books.Whybrow, Peter. (2006). Adam Smith’s American Dream: of Desire and Debt. New York: The City University of New York.